Sunday, June 7, 2020

Antimicrobial Resistance and its Implications in Medicine - Free Essay Example

Introduction The capability of a virus to fight the outcomes of treatment beforehand used to medicate them is known as Antimicrobial resistance (ARM). Viruses that are strong can be difficult to treat hence requiring substitute advanced doses which may be exclusive and poisonous. Bacteria that are resilient to a variety of antimicrobials can be referred to as multidrug resistant (MDR). Nevertheless microbes that are resilient to antibiotics come before medical use by humans. However, the use of the evolutionary pressure has led to resilient of more viruses due to a widespread use of antibiotic. Moreover, there are various reasons for the extensive use of antibiotics in human medication and some of these are; growth world accessibility over time since 1950s, misuse of antibiotics when not prescribed due to their accessibility in the counters. Additionally, selective pressures have also led to antimicrobial resistance whereby, existence of bacteria are killed or survive that is if they contain resilient genes. The survival of these bacteria hence reproduce and their offspring occurs as the leading kind all over the infectious population. On the other hand, mutation is also another cause of antimicrobial resistance where by bacteria duplicate by dividing after few hours. Moreover, this creates space to progress quickly and adjust to new ecological surroundings. Furthermore, modification ascend during resistance and some of the alterations can be of help in the survival of a single bacteria after its disclosure to antimicrobial. Transfer of genes also happens to another cause of antimicrobial resistance. Bacteria can acquire genes from each other and some of the genes acquired may be drug resilient. Pressures from the public is also another leading cause of antimicrobial resistance whereby even when used appropriately, some of the viruses become selective and resist organisms. Misuse of antimicrobials is also another cause of their resistance. A variety of microorganisms are resilient to antimicrobials due to their increased and inappropriate usage. Some pharmacists prescribe antimicrobials wrongly for the sake of satisfying the patients. Insufficient diagnostics whereby most health care workers provide in appropriate prescriptions on the use of antimicrobials on an infection giving it a trial on whether it will work. Hospital usage being a cause of antimicrobials resistance we find that most patients vulnerable to infections and hence may require antimicrobials. However, extensive use of these antimicrobials on the patients may result to some bacteria being resistant to these antimicrobials by creating a productive atmosphere for the spread antimicrobial resilient bacteria. Lastly is the use of agricultural whereby it is believed that use of antibiotics on agriculture may result to drug resilient as most of these antibiotics are produced in U.S meant for agricultural purposes. Additionally, around the 1990s the difficulty of antimicrobial resistance was not serious matter towards the management of communicable diseases. However, microorganisms were becoming resilient to guarantee their existence against antimicrobial. Moreover, these microorganisms achieved this centered on the chemical structure according to the mechanism of the agent in that boosted the antimicrobial. Therefore the lanes withdrawn by the drug affect the resistance mechanism and some organisms can look for other means to ensure their survival. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance can be defined in two means. The first one is natural whereby the bacteria obviously are not affected by the drugs due to their inability to retain target sites due to the difference in the chemical and microbial structures. This mostly targets the bacteria entering the chambers in order to tamper with their accomplishment. The second one is the obtained resistance where obviously vulnerable germs gather ways of escaping infections. However, acquired resistance mechanisms can develop through methods such as; existence of an enzyme that disables the antimicrobial cause, occurrence of a substitute enzyme for the enzyme that is hindered by the antimicrobial cause, formerly unknown mechanisms and condensed acceptance of the antimicrobial agent. Moreover there are more mechanisms such as the resilient to lactam antibiotics. These are categorized by the ownership of a lactam ring and comprise of carbapenems, oxapenams, cephmycins, penicillins and cephalosporins. Penicillins are the mostly used antibiotics in emerging countries since they are cheap and available. The lactam ring is essential in the movement of antibiotics hence leading to the closure of a variety of transpeptidases that catalyze the ending connection responses of peptidoglycan. The capability to reach the Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) and t heir capability to muddle to the PBPs affects the effectiveness of the antibiotics. In many cases, resilient lactam in most microbes is caused by the hydrolysis of the antibiotic by the modification of the PBPs. On the other hand, there is the tetracycline resistance. This type of antimicrobial is applicable in human as well as veterinary medication. These are available in emerging countries due to their low costs and reduced toxicity general range of action. Tetracyclines hinder protein production by stopping the connection of amino acyl-t RNA to the ribosomal acceptor location. Moreover the resistance of tetracyclines arise in three mechanisms namely, efflux of the antibiotics, alteration of the antibiotic and Ribosome defense. Efflux process takes place via the transfer of protein from the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). On the other hand, Ribosome defense follows via the r proteins protection that safeguards the ribosomes from the activity of tetracyclines. Finally, alteration of the antibiotic takes place over the alteration of the enzymes contained in the drug. Conversely, according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS), the average growth rate of resistance for antimicrobial in U.S.A between the years 1997-2002 was 8 percent lower than the 15 percent number of china. The NNIS further stated that the resistance of antimicrobial is higher amongst those patients in the ICU than the non-impatient in the ICU. However, when compared to China, U.S displays a more reasonable variance in resistance occurrence amongst unlike patients. Moreover, in U.s, the average occurrence of resilience in ICU, inpatient as well as casualties are 20, 17 and 13 percent correspondingly. Conclusion Antimicrobial resilient is an emerging and serious problem amongst many countries in the world. Therefore, future research on the determinants of drug opposing outlines and their international merging should be put in place. However, the movement of people across the world lead to transmission of diseases and some of these infections become resistant to antimicrobials. Farmers should also void using antibiotics on their farms. This is because, in U.S antibiotics are mostly used for the purposes of promotion and growth. Resistance virus have been identified to also have been obtained from the chicken meat in the groceries and finally people obtain them after feeding on the meat. Therefore antibiotics should not be used on the farm products. On the other hand, antibiotic stewardship should be practiced to curb the problem of antimicrobial resistance.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Positive Effects Of Corporal Punishment - 1174 Words

Gershoff’s article talks only about a few positive effects of corporal punishment which include immediate compliance, prevention of future misbehavior, and moral internalization. Corporal punishment is often seen as ineffective and as having negative results in children’s development including developing of aggressive behaviors, harming parent-child relationships, and damaging mental health. Mediational processes are inevitable consequences of corporal punishment when administered to children; a few of them include emotional and sensory arousal, perception and acceptance of disciplinary message, and observational learning and social control. The effects of corporal punishment on moral development, according to Gershoffs article, are†¦show more content†¦In Development Through the Lifespan, Laura E. Berk talks about inductive discipline. This type of induction helps make the child aware of feelings by pointing out the effects of the child’s misbehavior on others† (p. 276). When children understand the consequences of their actions on others, they are then more likely to refrain from misbehaving and display prosocial behaviors. Finally, although it is very argued against in the article through the many studies discussed, corporal punishment also has a positive effect on moral internalization in children when it is applied in an instrumental way and not accompanied by strong parental emotion. In African-American families this form of punishment is quite common and highly encouraged. Because the children in those families are familiar with the punishment, the tend to â€Å"†¦ view it as an effort to encourage maturity†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Berk, p. 270). Corporal punishment can help enhance children internalization when the children understand that it is aimed at guiding them to become responsible adults. Although, there are some positive constructs from corporal punishment there are even more negative constructs that outweigh the positive ones. Corporal punishment is often seen as ineffective and as having negative results in children’s development including developing of aggressive behaviors, harming parent-child relationships, and damagingShow MoreRelatedCorporal Punishment and the Effects of Its Usage757 Words   |  3 PagesCorporal Punishment and the effects of its usage Corporal punishment is the ability to make physical contact as a form of punishment for reprimanding ones behavior. Corporal punishment versus positive reinforcement while they both serve their purpose corporal punishment is known to be more effective. The most common form of disciplining has always been either a spanking, corporal punishment has been dated all the way back to biblical times. Now the corporal punishment that occurred during biblicalRead MoreEffects of Corporal Punishment on Children When Used in the Home1354 Words   |  6 PagesEffects of Corporal Punishment on Children When Used in the Home Discussion about corporal punishment is everywhere. It is in the news and in the home, and in education on what is punishment and what is abuse is beginning to rise. Corporal punishment has been used as a disciplinary tool for parents throughout all of Americas history (Gershoff, 2002, p. 1). However, the definition of what corporal punishment actually is, is still unclear to some people and parents. In Wendy Walshs essay, SpankerRead MoreEffects Of Positive Punishment On Children1562 Words   |  7 Pages This paper will explore effects of positive punishment on children from research conducted through an online database. The articles however vary in certain aspects and perspective of punishment. Lansford, Wagner, Bates, Pettit, Dodge (2012) discuss the controversy as to whether or not infrequent spanking is related to the higher levels of externalizing behavior. Fletcher (2012) discusses whether or not the use of punishment is effective on children. Straus (1999) suggested about 15 years ago thatRead MoreEffectiveness of Corporal Punishment1320 Words   |  5 Pagesof punishment is most efficient in eliciting avoidance behaviors. For a number of years the debate about the use and effectiveness of corporal punishment by teachers has divided educators, parents and ministry officials. As a result, researchers has tried their best to determine whether punishment or harm to a child does indeed thwart misbehavior and encourage students to follow the rules and regulations set forth by the schools. Although, Trinidad and Tobago has banned corporal punishment itRead MoreThe Effects Of Corporal Punishment On The Parent Child Relationship1634 Words   |  7 PagesTHE INFLUENCE OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT ON THE PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP. There are many different ways of disciplining a child. Corporal punishment is one of the main ones. The term corporal punishment means the intentional infliction of pain on the body for purposes of punishment and includes slapping, hitting with objects, pinching, shaking and forcing to stand for long periods of time. Family researchers define corporal punishment as the use of physical force aimed at causing childrenRead MoreCapital Punishment : A Controversial Topical1621 Words   |  7 PagesCapital punishment is a highly controversial topical. According to Benjet and Kazdin (2002), capital punishment can be defined as a child receiving a spank, an open-handed hit, on the buttocks that does not leave a lasting mark. The main theme of arguments in favor of capital punishment is in reference to its quick allowance of acceptance. On the other hand, the theme for arguments against capital punishment focuses on the long term effects of it. The stigma around spanking your child has changedRead MoreClassroom Discipline And Management Literature Review1363 Words   |  6 Pagesstrategies that are incorrect or rather unacceptable; whether this is done intentionally or under certain desperation to gain control and respect of the learners. It is prevalent across the globe. Although the South African system has used corporal punishment for many years to maintain discipline and management in the classroom; there have always been other alternative ways which are effective and better as opposed to the harsh way of discipline. The Constitution of South Africa specifically bannedRead MoreCorporal Punishment And Its Effect On Children1708 Words   |  7 Pagesviewpoint on corporal punishment; some of the reviews take a look at who is most affected by corporal punishment in terms of focusing their lens on race, socio-economic status, gender, culture etc. Some also take a critical look at the advantages and disadvantages of cor poral punishment. Some take a look at the widespread of corporal punishment in the US. Cases against corporal punishment and the effect of corporal punishment on children were also looked into. With all the different ways corporal punishmentRead MoreThe Case Against Spanking By Brendan L. Smith910 Words   |  4 Pagesresearchers has described that physical abuse and spanking can lead to some serious effects in children. Physical punishment can lead to aggression, antisocial behavior, and other negative effects physically and emotionally. The research and studies have found evidence of abuse to children in short-terms and long-terms. The physical discipline has been viewed as a violation of Children’s Human Rights. Physical punishment of children became a taboo in 30 countries this legal ban is used only as publicRead MoreIs Corporal Punishment A Common Parenting Approach?887 Words   |  4 Pagesas if corporal punishment is a common parenting approach, with over 70% of fam ilies participating. The speaker wants to introduce and convince families to a better parenting style. Holden presents a paradoxical argument that the way to empower children and parents is to disempower parents. He touches on the subject of corporal punishment and its unintended side effects. He transitions from speaking about a â€Å"traditional† parenting orientation, to what he considers a better option, â€Å"positive† parenting

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Death Penalty Information Center, “The Report Concluded

Death Penalty Information Center, â€Å"The report concluded that state and county charges for the defense, prosecution, and courts would be about $1.8 million per case through trial, initial state appeal, and appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court.† This was the estimation of how much they would have spent if the death penalty were to be reinstated. Abolishing capital punishment will save taxpayers a lot of money because it would cut the costs significantly on how much money is needed each year in order to prosecute defendants. Over the years, people that have been sentenced to death have been exonerated due it later being proven that they were innocent but for others it was too late to get their freedom back because they had already been executed.†¦show more content†¦As stated by the Death Penalty Information Center, â€Å"Mr. Adams was sentenced to death for the murder of a police officer in Dallas County, Texas. A purported eyewitness, who in fact was the actual killer, framed Mr. Adams and received immunity from prosecution in exchange for his testimony.† It took the police 12 years to realize that Adams was not the killer. Another case that had to do with eyewitness testimony was the conviction of Willie Brown in 1981. The DPIC stated that, â€Å" Mr. Brown and co-defendant Larry Troy were sentenced to death for the murder of a fellow inmate in Florida’s Union Correctional Institution. The conviction was based entirely upon the testimony of another prisoner who testified that h e saw them leave the victim’s cell shortly before his body was discovered.† In both of these cases the witnesses had made up their stories but it was not the Justice Department that decided to look further into these convictions. One was a German anti-death-penalty activist and the other was a film maker. This is an issue because the Justice department does not have the time to look into every case again but if others are not willing to help or listen to those who say that they are innocent, then this can cause it to be too late for many inmates on death row. Many cases of individuals who have been proven to innocent or there is speculation of them having been innocent, have happened after they had already been executed. AnShow MoreRelatedDeath Penalty I. Introduction Attention Graber: Everyone knows that in the United States killing is900 Words   |  4 Pages Death Penalty I. Introduction Attention Graber: Everyone knows that in the United States killing is wrong and if you do kill you get punish for it. Holly Near an activist tells us â€Å"Why do we kill people who are killing people to show that killing people is wrong?† Audience relevance: The United States is one Nation and that we believe that if you commit any crime you must be punished. If you commit a crime than you should be punish not murder. The death penalty is not a punishment. Also the DeathRead MoreThe Execution of Death Penalty1385 Words   |  6 PagesThe Death Penalty Introduction As of 2010, thirty-four States have some form of Death Penalty, while twelve States plus the District of Columbia have no Death Penalty. The number of Death Penalty executions from 1977 2010 by color-coded States follows: (Death Penalty Information Center, 2012). The basic dispute involving the Death Penalty is whether or not it should be abolished. This dispute has raged for decades in the United States and people on both sides of the debate appear toRead MoreIs the Death Penalty Just and Fairly Applied1039 Words   |  5 PagesIS THE DEATH PENALTY JUST AND APLIED FAIRLY? BY a234h eireie34 Informal Logic: PHI103 Tanya Martin AUGUST 9th 2012 Introduction- Thesis Statement Capital punishment has been used worldwide for at least the last two thousand years and it was not until this century that its use has come under considerable scrutiny here in the U.S. There have been some highly publicized trails that have brought Capital punishment out of the shadows and into the spot light, most notably were the NurembergRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Legal1573 Words   |  7 PagesThere are many legal issues that come along with the death penalty. Ratified on December 15, 1791, The United States Bill of Rights states in its eight amendment, â€Å"Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.† (8th Amendment to the Constitution). The Supreme Court stated during the 1958 case of Trop v. Dulles, that the 8th amendment must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturingRead MorePersuasive Essay On Death Penalty1618 Words   |  7 P agesDeath Penalty Since the year 1976, around 1,462 people in the United States have been executed by lethal injection. Practiced in 31 states and abolished in 19 the death penalty has remained a center stone of debate since its launch in 1976. With so many differing viewpoints, arguments pertaining to the moral issue, legal considerations and possible alternatives have been left unsettled since. The ongoing tug-of-war within these topics slowly tries to chip away at the big question. Should the deathRead MoreCapital Punishment Research Study1288 Words   |  6 Pagesrelated to cost, racial bias, socio-economic class, innocent persons on death row, and cruel and unusual punishment. A questionnaire was provided to participants to gauge the level of education regarding issues and knowledge of the death penalty. Capital punishment is defined as the legal process to which a person is put to death by the state as punishment for a crime. Capital punishment is also hereby referred to as the death penalty. Research Methods Data for this study was obtained using both primaryRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Be Abolished Essay1349 Words   |  6 Pages(Facts about the Death Penalty, 2016). About 156 people have been exonerated from death row as of December 9th, 2016 per the data information from the Death Penalty Information Center (Facts†¦, 2016). The charts and data per the DPIC, shows that there are more people, who were executed, in the south and as noted, â€Å"TX OK†, than there were in the Northeast, West, and other remaining Midwest region (Facts†¦, 2016). It seems that with the long process it takes for one death penalty litigant to be executedRead More Capital Punishment Should Be Abolished Essay1161 Words   |  5 PagesMore than 18,000 Americans have been executed since the creation of the death penalty in colonial times (University of Alabama). The sentence of death for the punishment of a murder in the United States has declined in recent years. In 2014, the number of new death sentences was 72, the lowest level in many decades. Unfortunately, the U.S. fails to recognize capital punishment as a profound human rights violation and as a frightening abuse of government power. There are both pros and cons to capitalRead MoreThe Death Penalty Should Not Be Required Essay1717 Words   |  7 Pagespunishment inflicted. If this is stated in our Constitution, why is it that 31 out of the 50 states in the USA enable the death penalty? The answer to that is beyond me because, in my opinion, no state should allow capital punishment for the simple reason that it is a form of cruel punishment. Because of this and many other reasons that I will bring up, I believe that the death penalty should be abolished throughout the United States. Cruel and unusual punishment, as the fourteenth amendment statesRead MoreEssay about The Case Against the Death Penalty1449 Words   |  6 PagesIn the United States, since the 1970s there have been more than 1270 executions according to the death penalty information center (Fact Sheet), What’s alarming about that number, is the number of people who were condemned to be executed based on race, income and social status alone, targeting those that could not afford good legal counsel, and were appointed attorneys that were â€Å"inexperienced and had below appropriate professional standards† (Hessick 1069), which sealed the fate of those literally

Bad News for the Customers of Aviva

Question: Select a product or service that you now use. It could be your newspaper, internet service provider, car insurance company or asome other product or service that you regularly use. Assume that providers must raise its its rates, and you are the employee who must notify customers. Decide whether you should use the direct or indirect pattern. What, if anything, justifies the increase? What benefits can be cited? Answer: Bad news for the Customers of Aviva On March 17, 2015 Aviva Canada is declaring with a heavy heart about the increase in car insurance rate from 12% to 15%. The customers have to pay more premiums for their insured car. This is an economic recovery plan. The rate of increase will affect the insurer a temporary contribution related to tax compensation for financial institutions. A memo is enclosed with this announcement (Maggio, 2014). To, The Customers of Aviva, March XX, XXXX Sub: Increase in Insurance rate of Aviva Canada Dear Customers, It has been a pleasure to serve you for the past few decades and looking forward to enhance the customer relationship in near future. With the news of ongoing deflation prevailing in the market, as the export industry is facing a slow rebound with its major concerns the company has to make the decision consulting its board of directors for raising the rate of Insurance from 12% to 15%. Due to deflation the company was getting affected in its operations in the country specifically in branches of Toronto and Regina. Though the prime aim of Aviva is to please their customers but in situations like this the company had to request their customer to cooperate with the company in this situation (Guffey and Loewy, 2010). Unfortunately there is no alternative for the sustenance of the ongoing business and with no other option the company had to take this step. But the company is confident that the service quality will be better and even in view of these new prices, they would be competitive and reasonable enough for the choice of their respectable customer. A memo is enclosed with this copy Thank you for your cooperation Sincerely, Aviva Canada (Name: ) Director of marketing department. References Guffey, M. and Loewy, D. (2010).Essentials of business communication. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning. Maggio, R. (2014).How to say it, third edition. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Organically Grown Food Essay Sample free essay sample

Organic nutrients are by and large produced based on definite production criterions. Crops. to be considered as organic nutrient. should non be grown utilizing conventional pesticides. human wastes. sewer sludge and even unreal fertilisers. Furthermore. organic nutrients should non be processed utilizing ionising radiation or nutrient additives. In the instance of animate beings. they should be raised or taken attention of without a accustomed usage of antibiotic and growing endocrines use. A nutrient is classified to be organically grown by Government-approved certifiers. The U. S. Department of Agriculture sets the criterions which should be purely followed by all organic nutrients. As such. an organically grown nutrient can merely be released in the market if and merely if it has the â€Å"USDA Organic† seal. In their criterions. an organically produced merchandise should hold a lower limit of 95 % of the nutrients ingredients to be organically produced. The Government-approved certifiers give besides seals of blessing to merchandises which have at least 70 per centum organic ingredients. We will write a custom essay sample on Organically Grown Food Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page However the seal can non be indicated on the front screen of the merchandise. If it does non hold the â€Å"USDA Organic† seal. so the organic merchandise have non met the USDA criterions or that any claim of being an organic merchandise can non be wholly dependable. However. non all 95 % to 100 % organic merchandises have the seal because the usage of the seal is non mandatory. Evaluation of organically grown nutrients or merchandises show that even if they are grown organically. it is still non known whether they are safer and more alimentary than the traditionally produced nutrients or merchandises. Furthermore. if a merchandise is said to be organic. it does non immediately mean that it is natural. Claims such as â€Å"natural† . â€Å"free-range† or â€Å"hormone free† can be seen together with the label â€Å"organic† . but these footings are non interchangeable. Mention Organic Food Standards and Labels: The Facts. ( April 2002. January 2007 ) . Retrieved January 23. 2008. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Ams. Department of Agriculture. gov/nop/Consumers/brochure. hypertext markup language

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Free Essays on The Battle Of Leyte Gulf

The last great battleship engagement in history was the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October of 1944. By late 1944, it was starting to become obvious that desperate measures were needed to be taken to stop the onslaught of the United States Navy. The strength of the U.S. Navy had been growing at an alarming rate, and to make matters worse, nearly every time the Japanese navy had fought with the U.S. navy the Japanese took a terrible beating. The fall of the Philippines would be a terrible blow to the Japanese, but they had no way to prevent it. After the Battle of the Philippine Sea, Japan only had a handful of planes and even fewer pilots to fly them. Because of this, there carriers were totally useless, except if they were used as decoys. This was the basis of Japan’s brilliant plan. They would lure the powerful and dangerous Third Fleet under Admiral Nimitz away to chase the empty aircraft carriers. Then, they would ambush the slow and unarmored Seventh Fleet, under General MacArthur. Admiral Ozawa would steam down from the north with the â€Å"bait.† If the Third Fleet took the â€Å"bait,† the surface units of the Japanese Navy under Admiral Kurita would attempt to spring a deadly trap. A small force consisting of two battleships, a heavy cruiser, and four destroyers would sneak through the Surigao Strait, followed by three more cruisers and four destroyers sailing in from Japanese home waters. However the main force would sail from Brunei consisting of five battleships, twelve cruisers, and fifteen battleships. They would sneak through the San Bernardino Strait, loop around the island of Samar, and smash the Americans. The Japanese would fight a fleet that consisted of 151 LSTs (landing ships, tank), 58 transports, 221 LCTs (landing craft, tank) and 79 LCIs (landing craft, infantry), and hundreds of other vessels in five battles. The first stage of the Japanese Navy’s trap did not go so well. As they advanced up the Pal...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Final Exam Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Final Exam - Assignment Example In this regards, one is assured of job security because of knowing another language. Knowledge of another language can be important can be advantageous when one wants to learn and understand cultures of other people. It is utterly impossible to comprehend other cultures if in the first place you do not know the language of those cultures. Lack of knowledge of other peoples’ culture may lead to intolerance and conflicts because behaviors in one culture are expressed differently through language in other cultures. 2. An English language learner (ELL) can be confused for a child with learning disability because both of these scenarios exhibit similar characteristics and behaviors. These two groups of individuals usually share a number of traits and sometimes the line separating them becomes blurred leading to mistaken identities. ELL students may speak infrequently in class and most of the times they make keep to themselves. In other times they may engage excessively in conversat ions using either their first language or English. Others may have poor memory, pronunciation, grammar and syntax, refusal to respond to questions besides refusing to volunteer information. This sort of confusion can be sorted out by the teachers of the students teaming up with other professionals in order to differentiate the problems arising due to learning disabilities and those due to second language acquisition. 3. One of the important strategies of promoting language in English learners is by using questions. Many teachers ask their students questions which to an ordinary student may appear to be redundant and obvious. When questions are asked about the community and other happenings outside the class, students tend to be more assertive and active in class which promotes second language acquisition. Another strategy is use of teaching practices that are culturally responsive in order to create a positive and interactive learning environment. Incorporation of cultural and lingu istic resources in the class occurs through such practices like storytelling and vivid description of past events by the students. Besides these two, a teacher can also use successful practices that ensure that there is promotion of language as a means of sharing experiences, ideas and interests in class. This simply means developing social groups within a class whereby students learn through shared experiences by socialization with peers. 4. Receptive as well as expressive language skills are very important and pertinent to the writing and reading processes. As such, they form a central part of emergent literacy in children since they form important ways in which children perceive and understand their world. Young children like adults usually learn through writing and reading but not in the way adults do because they are still learning their expressive and receptive skills. On the one hand, expressive skills are developed through reading whereas receptive skills come from reading. The combination of these two skills is very important in influencing how emergent literacy on a child will be. Children that have poor receptive and expressive learning usually tend to be poor in emergent literacy which affects their participation in class and their performance. 5. Emergent literacy develops over a long period in students which is depended on the ability of the students to move through different